The challenge is to obtain in situ subsurface data from under the ice in the Arctic Ocean
The knowledge of physical and biological processes in the Arctic Ocean is limited, because the ice cover severely hampers observations, both in the upper layers and deep waters. There is a severe lack of in situ subsurface data for the Arctic Ocean. It is a pronounced technological and logistical challenge to improve the ocean component of an integrated Arctic Observing System. Multi-disciplinary in situ data in the Arctic Ocean are still collected mainly during icebreaker expeditions, aircraft surveys, or from manned drifting platforms. However, these activities are irregular in time, very expensive, biased to the summer season, and hence poorly suited for providing regular long-term monitoring data. INTAROS is enhancing the sensors and systems to improve data collection in both ice covered and open ocean areas.